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Título : Brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres en el mercado laboral urbano del cantón Quito
Autor : Piaún Cabrera, Amparo Elizabeth
Palabras clave : ECONOMIA LABORAL
ECONOMETRIA
MERCADO LABORAL
EQUIDAD DE GENERO
QUITO
Fecha de publicación : 25-may-2010
Editorial : QUITO/EPN/2010
Resumen : En el año 2000, en la Declaración del Milenio, 160 países alrededor del mundo se comprometieron entre otras cosas a cumplir el objetivo de "Promover la Igualdad entre Géneros y la Autonomía de la Mujer". Parte del problema de inequidad entre géneros se presenta en el mercado laboral, de allí nos preguntamos si en Quito existe brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres en el mercado laboral urbano, cuál es la magnitud y cuál es su composición: discriminación o productividad. La teoría microeconómica convencional asume que bajo criterios de competencia perfecta el salario pagado a los trabajadores es igual a su productividad marginal de trabajo, lo que significa que no debería existir diferencias salariales entre hombres y mujeres que presenten el mismo capital intelectual y que realicen trabajos de idéntico valor, sin embargo; en la realidad el supuesto no se cumple pues no existe disponibilidad de información completa y correcta para oferentes y demandantes. Para determinar la existencia de una brecha salarial en el mercado laboral urbano de Quito se analiza la información primaria que presenta la Encuesta Nacional de Empleo, Subempleo y Desempleo (ENEMDU) publicada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos (INEC), sin embargo; dicho análisis solo nos dá una idea general de la situación de hombres y mujeres en el mercado laboral. Para estimar la magnitud de la brecha salarial se obtienen las funciones de ingreso de hombres y mujeres mediante la aplicación del método de los Mínimos Cuadrados. Finalmente la aplicación del denominado Método de la Descomposición de Oaxaca nos ayuda a determinar la composición de la brecha salarial, por discriminación o por productividad. Ronald Oaxaca fue pionero en el estudio de la descomposición de la brecha salarial en un análisis realizado sobre los salarios que percibían hombres y mujeres en el mercado laboral de California (EEUU).
URI : http://bibdigital.epn.edu.ec/handle/15000/2170
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